MCQ of modern history for upsc

In this article, we will discuss some important MCQs of Modern History for UPSC CS
This is an important topic for the UPSC CSE exam and students should focus on preparing well for it.

The article will provide an overview about the topics that are covered in the MCQs.
It will also help in understanding the marking scheme for these questions.
Last but not the least, it will give an idea about how to approach these questions

Who among the following preached the doctrine of “One Religion, One Caste, and One God for mankind”?

[A] Jyotiba Phule
[B] Vivekananda
[C] Sri Narayan Guru
[D] Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

Correct Answer: C [Sri Narayan Guru]

The maxim “One caste, One religion, One God” was advocated by Sri Narayana Guru. It’s important to note that Sahadaran Ayyapan, one of his atheist pupils, altered that to read, “no religion, no caste, and no God for mankind.”

2. In which year “Poorna Swarajya” resolution was adopted by the Indian National Congress? 

[A] 1927
[B] 1928
[C] 1929
[D] 1930

Correct Answer: C [1929]
Notes:
On December 26, 1929, at Lahore, the Indian National Congress passed the Purna Swaraj resolution. That meeting’s president was Jawaharlal Nehru. It was agreed to observe January 26th, 1930, as “Independence Day.”

3. After returning from South Africa, which among the following was the first successful satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi? 

[A] Chauri-Chaura
[B] Dandi
[C] Champaran
[D] Bardoli

Correct Answer: C [Champaran ]
Notes:
Gandhiji was asked by Rajkumar Shukla to become involved in the Champaran indigo planters’ dispute. Indigo was made to be grown on 3/20ths of the land by the planter. The system was referred to as Tinkathia. Gandhiji’s protest finally led to the system’s abolition and assisted in the authorities receiving 25% of the planters’ unlawfully acquired funds.

4. Which among the following does not correctly denotes the headquarters of Indian Army’s Operational Command?

[A] Eastern Command – Kolkata
[B] Western Command – Chandimandir
[C] Northern Command – Udhampur
[D] Southern Command – Chennai

Correct Answer: D [Southern Command – Chennai]
Notes:
Southern Command has its headquarters in Pune

5. Who among the following said that “The Rowlatt Act is a Preventive Murder“?

[A] Mahatma Gandhi
[B] Lala Lajpat Rai
[C] Edwin Samuel Montagu
[D] Jawahar Lal Nehru

Correct Answer: C [Edwin Samuel Montagu]
Notes:
The Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi approved the Rowlatt Act, sometimes referred to as the Black Act, on March 21, 1919. It gave the government the authority to imprison someone without a judicial trial or judgement. It effectively put the Habeas Corpus right on hold. The Rowlatt Act, according to Edwin Samuel Montagu, “is a Preventive Murder.”.

6. Who planted the ‘Tree of Liberty’ at Srirangapatnam?

[A] Hyder Ali
[B] Tipu Sultan
[C] Chin Quilich Khan
[D] Murshid Quli Khan

Correct Answer: B [Tipu Sultan]
Notes:
When Tipu Sultan backed the Jacobin Club of Mysore in roughly 1794, he planted the Tree of Liberty in Srirangapatnam. The first Revolutionary Republican organisation to be established in India was the Jacobin Club of Mysore. The officers of the French Republican movement founded it.

7. The Swaraj Party was divided into factions after the death of C.R.Das and its ‘Responsivists’ faction worked for/by?

[A] Safeguarding the hindu interests by cooperating with the British Government.
[B] Creating obstacles in legislative process by acting as dissenters.
[C] Cooperating with the No-Changers of the Congress in the favour of constructive programme of Gandhi.
[D] Maintaining a separate identity of the Party within the Congress.

Correct Answer: A [Safeguarding the hindu interests by cooperating with the British Government.]
Notes:
The Swaraj party was established in 1923. After C.R. Das’s passing, the organisation split into Responsivists and Non-responsivists based on philosophy. In order to protect Hindu interests by working with the British Government, Lala Lajpat Rai, N. C. Kelkar, and Madan Mohan Maviya were the responsivists. Non-responsivists like Motilal Nehru retired from political office in 1926.

8. Which among the following formulated a Dominion Status Constitution for India?

[A] Fourteen Points of Jinnah
[B] Nehru Report
[C] Butler Report
[D] Simon commission

Correct Answer: B [Nehru Report]
Notes:
From August 28 to August 31, 1928, Motilal Nehru presided over an All Parties Conference in Lucknow. Motilal Nehru delivered the constitution’s draught during the convention. The Nehru report is the name of it. Through this study, India was urged to get Dominion Status. Later, on March 28, 1929, Md. Ali Jinnah made his 14 demands at the Muslim League convention in Delhi.

9. In which year, Capital of India was shifted to Delhi from Kolkata?

[A] 1910
[B] 1911
[C] 1915
[D] 1917

Correct Answer: B [1911]
Notes:
A key hub of the revolutionary activity was Calcutta. For this reason, in 1911, there was a capital move from Calcutta to Delhi. On December 12, 1911, George V and Queen Mary announced the transfer of the capital in the Delhi Durbar.

10. In which of the following states / Union territories of India, most tribal follow a matrilineal system where lineage and inheritance are traced through women?

[A] Andaman & Nicobar Islands
[B] Nagaland
[C] Meghalaya
[D] Sikkim

Correct Answer: C [Meghalaya]

11. Socio-religious reform movements in western India were led by some very illustrious personalities, the incorrect statement in this context is:

[A] Gopal Hari Deshmukh was one of the earliest religious reformers who rationally attacked hindu orthodox beliefs.
[B] Bal Gangadhar was a great Indian nationalist who revived the faith of Indians in their rich cultural heritage by celebration of Shivaji and Ganesh festival in Maharashtra.
[C] Dr Atmaram Pandurang and Justice Ranade, founded the Prarthana Samaj in Maharashtra, inspired by the Brahmo Samaj and espousing principles of enlightened theism based on the ancient Vedas.
[D] Justice Ranade and Pandita Ramabai were pioneers of women’s education in India.


Correct Answer: D [Justice Ranade and Pandita Ramabai were pioneers of women’s education in India.]
Notes:
Women’s education in India was pioneered by Jyotiba and Savitribai Phule.

12. Who was the first Governor-General of Independent India?

[A] Lord Wavell
[B] General Kodandera Madappa
[C] Chakravarti Rajgopalachari
[D] Lord Mountbaten


Correct Answer: D [Lord Mountbaten]
Notes:
The final viceroy of the British Indian Empire and the first Governor-General of an independent India, Lord Mountbatten served from 1947 to 1948.

13. Who was the founder of Landholders Society(1838) ?

[A] Devendranath Tagore
[B] Dwarkanath Tagore
[C] Surendra Nath Banerjee
[D] K.T.Telang


Correct Answer: B [Dwarkanath Tagore]
Notes:
Dwarkanath Tagore founded the Zamindari Association (commonly known as the Landholders’ Society) in Bengal in 1838 to safeguard the interests of the landowners.

14. The Lahore Conspiracy Case (1928-31) was registered against whom?

[A] V.D. Savarkar
[B] Aurbindo Ghosh
[C] Ram Prasad Bismil
[D] Bhagat Singh


Correct Answer: D [Bhagat Singh]
Notes:
Case of the Lahore Conspiracy (1928–31): In order to get revenge for the murder of Lal Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, Jai Gopal, and Sukh Dev planned to assassinate Scott, the police commissioner. However, they opened fire on DSP J. P. Saunders, who died instantly. Bhagat Singh chopped his beard and hair in order to go unnoticed as he quickly departed from Lahore. When he was apprehended after putting a bomb in the Delhi Assembly, he was then pursued in this Lahore Conspiracy Case. The inmates endured harsh treatment while incarcerated. After a 64-day hunger strike, Jatin Das passed away. SukhDev, Rajguru, and Bhagat Singh all received death sentences. There were widespread demonstrations against this execution across the nation.

15. With reference to Freedom Struggle in India, how the word “Swadeshi” is different from “Boycott”?

  1. While Swadeshi was essentially economic movement, Boycott was not
  2. Swadeshi Movement was a positive corollary of Boycott
  3. While Swadeshi attracted the lower classes of the society, Boycott attracted the higher classes

Select the correct option from the codes given below:

[A] Only 1 & 2
[B] Only 2
[C] Only 2 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3


Correct Answer: B [ Only 2 ]
Notes:
Boycott and Swadeshi were both accepted by the populace as complementary components of the same movement. These two terms have been employed as both political and economic instruments, and they are two sides of the same coin. In order to express British public outrage at the severe injustice meted out to Bengal, the boycott of British products was used. Swadeshi was adopted with boycott, which appeared to be a negative programme with a good corollary. Swadeshi means encouraging the use of domestic goods instead of imported ones. Thus, the Boycott and Swadeshi movement united all social strata in India, particularly in Bengal, around a single cause..
(Source for excerpt: Mazhar Kibriya’s book Gandhi and the Indian Freedom Struggle, APH Publishing Corporation)
The third claim is entirely false and was made up by myself.

16. Which among the following was the most significant outcome of the Punjab Land Alienation Act in 1900?

[A] Condition of the peasants improved significantly
[B] The land revenue from peasants improved significantly
[C] Various cooperative societies of peasants came up
[D] The large land holdings got split into small land holdings


Correct Answer: C [Various cooperative societies of peasants came up]
Notes:
The Punjab Land Alienation Act was introduced by Lord Curzon in 1900. It was outlined in this legislation that non-peasants might purchase land from peasants but could not have their land attached in the event of debt non-payment or mortgage the land for an extended period of time (more than 20 years). As a result, lenders ceased lending money, forcing Lord Curzon to establish banks and these societies. As a result, many agricultural cooperative organisations and agricultural banks were created under Lord Curzon.

17. To supervise the land revenue collection process during the reign of Warren Hastings, a Board of Revenue was set up in which of the following places?

[A] Calcutta
[B] Monghyr
[C] Murshidabad
[D] Bhagalpur


Correct Answer: A [Calcutta]
Notes:
The land revenue was assigned to collectors by Warren Hastings. For five years, the land was awarded to the highest bidder. Calcutta established a Board of Revenue to oversee the entire procedure.

18. Arrange the following Portuguese voyagers according to their India expedition chronologically
1. Pedro Alvarez Cabral
2. Vasco Da Gama
3. Francisco De Almeida
4. Nino Da Cunha
Choose the correct option from the codes given below :

[A] 1, 2, 3, 4
[B] 2, 1, 3, 4
[C] 4, 3, 1, 2
[D] 3, 2, 4, 1


Correct Answer: B [2, 1, 3, 4]
Notes:
Vasco Da Gama (1498), Pedro Alvarez Cabral (1500), Francisco De Almeida (1505), and Nino Da Cunha are listed in chronological sequence (1529)

19. Which of the following coastal regions was the main trading point of the Portuguese?

[A] Coromandel Coast
[B] Malabar Coast
[C] Konkan Coast
[D] Utkal Coast


Correct Answer: B [Malabar Coast]
Notes:
The Portuguese began commerce and piracy with the aid of Albuquerque’s strong leadership. The coastal region of Malabar eventually became the Portuguese’s primary commercial hub.

20. The battle of St. Thome was fought beside which of the following rivers?

[A] Vaigai
[B] Cheyyar
[C] Adyar
[D] Vellar


Correct Answer: C [Adyar]
The Battle of St. Thome was fought in the year 1746 beside the Adyar river. The importance of naval power was realised for the first time by the Europeans.

The MCQ of modern history for UPSC is an important examination that helps to test the knowledge and understanding of candidates about the modern era. It is essential that candidates preparing for this examination devote sufficient time and effort to mastering the topics covered in the syllabus. The questions in the paper are designed to test a range of skills, including comprehension, analysis, and synthesis. By practising answering past papers and by seeking feedback on their answers, candidates can improve their chances of success in the examination.

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