Biomedical instrumentation mcq

This set of biomedical instrumentation multiple-choice questions centers on catheterization laboratory equipment.

1. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the chest-wall movements over the apex of heart?
a) Apexcardiograph
b) Ballistocardiograph
c) Electro-oculograph
d) Electro-retinograph

Answer: a
Explanation: An apexcardiograph records the chest-wall movements over the apex of the heart. These movements are in the form of vibrations having a frequency range of 0.1 to about 20 Hz.

2. The transducer required for recording these movements in apexcardiograph is similar to the electrocardiograph.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b
Explanation: False, The transducer required for recording these movements in apexcardiograph is similar to that employed for a phonocardiograph (PCG) but which has a frequency response much below the audio range. It can be an aircoupled microphone or a contact microphone. They are further categorized into crystal type or dynamic type based on their principle of operation. The crystal microphone contains a wafer of piezo-electric material, which generates potentials when subjected to mechanical stresses due to heart sounds. The dynamic type microphone consists of a moving coil having a fixed magnetic core inside it. The coil moves with the heart sounds and produces a voltage because of its interaction with the magnetic flux.

3. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the movements imparted to the body with each beat of the heart cycle?
a) Apexcardiograph
b) Ballistocardiograph
c) Electro-oculograph
d) Electro-retinograph

Answer: b
Explanation: A ballistocardiograph is a machine that records the movement imparted to the body with each beat of the heart cycle. These movements occur during the ventricular contraction of the heart muscle when the blood is ejected with sufficient force.

4. What is mounted on the table to convert the movements into corresponding electrical signals in BCG?
a) Oscilloscope
b) Sensing device
c) Pramplifier
d) Tape recorder

Answer: b
Explanation: In BCG, the patient is made to lie on a table top which is spring suspended or otherwise mounted to respond to very slight movements along the head axis. Sensing devices are mounted on the table to convert these movements into corresponding electrical signals. The sensors usually are piezo-electric crystals, resistive elements or permanent magnets, moving with respect to fixed coils.

5. ________________ is the recording of the bio-potentials generated by the movement of eye ball.
a) Apexcardiography
b) Electro-oculography
c) Electro-retinography
d) Ballistocardiography

Answer: b
Explanation: Electro-oculography is the recording of the bio-potentials generated by the movement of the eyeball. The EOG potentials are picked up by small surface electrodes placed on the skin near the eye.

6. What is used to pick EOG potentials?
a) Oscilloscope
b) Tape Recorder
c) Surface Electrodes
d) Preamplifier

Answer: c
Explanation: Electro-oculography is the recording of the bio-potentials generated by the movement of the eyeball. The EOG potentials are picked up by small surface electrodes placed on the skin near the eye.

7. What is the frequency range of Chest-wall movements?
a) 0.025 to 0.05 Hz
b) 0.05 to 0.1 Hz
c) 0.1 to 20 Hz
d) 20 to 100 Hz

Answer: c
Explanation: An apexcardiograph records the chest-wall movements over the apex of the heart. These movements are in the form of vibrations having a frequency range of 0.1 to about 20 Hz.

8. Which of the following instrument is used for recording the change in potential when light falls on the eye?
a) Apexcardiography
b) Ballistocardiography
c) Electro-oculography
d) Electro-retinography

Answer: d
Explanation: It is found that an electrical potential exists between the cornea and the back of the eye. This potential changes when the eye is illuminated. The process of recording the change in potential when light falls on the eye is called electroretinography.

9. One of the electrode is mounted on the contact lens and the other is placed to the skin adjacent to the outer cornea of the eye.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a
Explanation: True, ERG potentials can be recorded with a pair of electrodes. One of the electrodes is mounted on a contact lens and is in direct contact with the cornea and the other electrode is placed on the skin adjacent to the outer corner of the eye as it is found that an electrical potential exists between the cornea and the back of the eye. This potential changes when the eye is illuminated. A reference electrode may be placed on the forehead.

10. Which of the following is useful in the diagnosis of the enlargement of the heart chambers and some type of valvular disorders?
a) Apexcardiograph
b) Ballistocardiograph
c) Electro-oculograph
d) Electro-retinograph

Answer: a
Explanation: The apexcardiograph has limited applications. It is, however, useful in the diagnosis of the enlargement of the heart chambers and some type of valvular disorders.

Conclusion

In conclusion, biomedical instrumentation is a vital and rapidly advancing field. The questions in this article are just a sampling of the types of questions that can be asked in an examination of this field. By understanding the principles behind biomedical instrumentation, you can better assess and critique the many devices used in modern medicine.

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